The development of computers started from the 16th century and today’s modern computer is the result of this. However, the development of computers has changed rapidly. After each generation, the size, function and functionality of the computer have improved a lot. The present day computer is quite modern and developed. During this evolutionary period, computers have undergone considerable changes. Which has given birth to new generations of computers and different types of computers have been invented. Which we know as Generation of Computer and it is divided into different generations of computers.
Generation of Computer
- First generation computers (1940 – 1956)
- Second generation computers (1956 – 1963)
- Third generation computers (1964 – 1971)
- Fourth generation computers (1971 – 1980)
- Fifth generation computers (current and future)
First Generation of Computers (1940 – 1956)
Vacuum tubes were used in first generation computers. The vacuum tube was a delicate glass machine made from vacuum to remove gas. Vacuum tubes have electrodes to control electron flow and in early computers it was used as a switch or amplifier. It could also control and amplify the electronic signal. These vacuum tubes were used for calculations as well as storage and control. The first electronic computer was Electronic Computer, ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). It was invented by J. Presper Eckert and John William Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania. The ENIAC was about 30 to 50 feet long, weighing 30 tons, with 18,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 registers, 10,000 capacitors. And 150,000 watts of power was required. The first generation computers were very large and heavy in size, requiring large rooms to keep and emitting large amounts of heat, so Air conditioners were required for the proper functioning of computers. ENIAC was first used in World War II to make hard calculations, to make hydrogen bombs. Later, it was used for weather forecasting, solving mathematical problems of space research, and other scientific work. Used to go, but due to its very slow speed, its use was stopped soon. After ENIAC, John Pressper Eckert and John William Mauchly in the year 1946 EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) was invented. In EDVAC programs as well as running data were stored in memory and both data and instructions were being processed very fast. In 1952, Eckert and Mauchly also developed the first commercial computer UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer). This generation of computers used a magnetic drum as internal memory. In this generation programming was done in machine and assembly language, machine languages are based on 0 and 1 only.
Second Generation of Computer (1956 – 1963)
In second generation computers, the vacuum tube was replaced by a transistor. It was developed by William Shockley in 1947. Computers became smaller, faster and cheaper in size. They used less energy than before. It was possible to do programming on these computers. This generation of computers was used mainly in nuclear power plants. Magnetic tape was used as memory in this.
Third Generation of Computers (1964 – 1971)
In third generation computers, Integrated Circuit or I.C. Was used. An IC (integrated circuit) is a complex chip that has many transistors. The IC was invented on 12 September 1958 by Jack Kilby, an electrical engineer at the Texas Instruments Company. ICL 2903, ICL 1900, UNIVAC 1108 and System 1360 were the main computers of this generation. Many small transistors are placed inside the IC (integrated circuit), which are mounted on silicon chips, called semiconductors. This increases the computer speed because all three transistors, registers and capacitors are integrated into one IC. Due to which the size of the computer becomes very small and its working speed also increases and the power consumption is also reduced. Many different tasks can be done on these computers at the same time. By this time computers had come within the reach of common man. Due to the scale integrated circuit, the speed of these computers was reduced from micro seconds to nano seconds. Operating systems were used in these computers and new high level languages were developed. For example, BASIC (Beginner All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) IC (Integrated Circuit) made the computer faster and its internal functions were automated.
Fourth Generation of Computers (1971 – 1980)
In fourth generation computers, microprocessors were used. These computers are currently in use and are being developed further. Microprocessor chips were developed in this generation. The microprocessor was invented in 1971 by Marcian E Huff. 0 and 1 were coded for computer operation. These are known as binary numbers. Some computers of this generation were very small, they can fit in the palm of your hand. These computers were made smaller, faster and cheaper and were widely used. Mouse and other peripheral devices, such as joysticks, etc. were developed during this phase. Computers could be connected together in a network to share information with each other, this played an important role in the development of the Internet. The microprocessor was named. The first microcomputer was made by a well-known company named MITS. Today the two largest microprocessor companies in the world are Intel and AMD. High speed networks were developed which you know as Local Area Network and WAN. The operating system MS DOS was first used in this generation. With this, Microsoft Windows operating system also started coming into computers after some time. Due to which the practice of multimedia started. At the same time, the C Programming Language was developed, which made programming easier. This generation is considered the biggest revolution in the field of computers. Now we are all using computers as personal computers too.
Fifth Generation of Computers (1980 and Future)
The fifth generation of computers that are still under development, but it is not yet clear in which direction the fifth generation will go. The fifth generation computer is based on ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology. Artificial Intelligence capability is being developed in this generation of computers, they will work accordingly. In this generation of computers, the ability to think on its own is being created. Computers are being made workable in every field and some success has also been achieved, for example you are looking at Windows Cortana, Google Assistant, Apple Siri etc. It is using high level programming language. is. It is being simplified with the help of GUI (Graphical User Interface). These computers use the Internet to solve any problem because they are connected through the network. Some computers are being designed to behave like humans and do all the work themselves, where robots go. The best example of this is the artificial intelligence (AI) based robot Sophia.